IntroductionI was working with a client who needed an important business critical system.
Their IT department was organized with traditional project management and ran on 1-2 months cycles. Because this product would be core of the business for years to come, I suggested to do this with internal staff, who would later maintain and enhance the product. The suggestion included putting up a cross-functional team with six people, one process manager, two analysts who should also produce test scenarios, two coders and a sysop.
I wanted to deliver incrementally using fast feedback cycles to both offer maximum value to the business quickly and close any potential gaps in understanding on the go.
And so it came to pass that I was to be the Project Manager of this team. Due to staffing reasons, I ended up with an external and an internal analyst as well as an external and an internal developer. No problem - or so I thought.
Mishap #1: AutonomyThe first battle my team fought was that of opinions about technology. Microservices were to be used, and the data was mostly complex and weakly structured. The team's choice fell on a document-oriented database, MongoDB. This choice was met with massive resistance from the developers outside the team who weren't familiar with this technology. There was over a month of debate whether this technology was appropriate, and nothing got done because we didn't even have a way to store data. We finally reached a point where senior management had to intervene. Even after that, no developer outside the team would bother to learn about this new technology. Strike #1 against the team, they didn't have the support of other developers.
Problem: The team wasn't empowered to make autonomous decisions to begin with.
Mishap #2: Continuous DeliveryContinuous delivery was the plan, and we had two-week iterations to begin with. Unfortunately, the company was a bit short on infrastructure, so we didn't get an environment for five months. I did let this pass, because it was a problem outside my sphere of control. In retrospect, it was what probably killed the project to begin with, because we couldn't deliver anything of value for a long time - and when we did, it looked staggeringly miniscule. As a team, we were now in the defense already.
Problem: No Continuous Delivery, no feedback learning.
Mishap #3: Mixed ResponsibilityNo bragging, just describing the role. My role included responsibilities from PO and SM functions, lead business analyst and tester, as well as those of a traditional Project Manager. As you can guess, this cocktail turned really sour. I couldn't be a neutral SM when I was pushing a technology choice, I couldn't be the PO focused on user needs while tracking tasks and making timelines and I couldn't be the team's confidate when pressing for results.
Problem: Scrum roles and traditional project roles don't blend - especially not in one person.
Mishap #4: CultureFrom the beginning, we faced resistance from the remaining IT staff, cumulating in seemingly witty remarks such as, "Do developers pick their own work here?" or "Do you seriously want to tell me developers test their own code?" The culture of an agile team made the team an intruder, an outsider for the others. It attacked their very belief system. Combined with #2, we really didn't have anything to show, so the criticism grew louder with no results to counter them.
Problem: Simply working in the same room with people who don't understand what you're doing won't have the conversion effect you expect.
Mishap #5: Clean CodeGetting a small microservice out of the door shouldn't be much of an issue with five people and a couple of weeks on your time. Enter - lack of understanding of the "Simplicity" Principle. You won't be agile when people turn a simple SQL query into a battleship of complexity.
We lost months on un-maintainable legacy code because one developer took private code ownership, hard-coding tons of magic numbers and nesting over twenty loops - only to discover that stuff didn't work properly and nobody could figure out why.
Problem: Before trying to work in an agile manner, developers need at least a rudimentary understanding of software craftsmanship.
Mishap #6: ManagementAfter the line manager saw that I wasn't properly commanding and controlling the team, he started pushing his superiors to "fix this problem". The result was that we ended up with two project managers - one to take care of the project and the line manager, who wouldn't take any responsibility except ensuring that people reported to him (mostly things which neither they nor he even comprehended) and met pre-appointed deadlines that were created in complete disregard of the time required to do the work.
This second manager caused developers to skip writing tests, checking in quick-and-dirty code, skipping on the agreed DoD to avoid punishment. Basically, this second manager invalidated our entire agile approach within weeks.
Problem: Team autonomy is a farce when someone outside the team says what by when. A PO who must accept such externally imposed constraints is a toothless tiger.
Mishap #7: TrustThe absolute elephant in the room was a complete absence of trust which I didn't address in a timely fashion. The more trust there was inside the team, the bigger the distrust of those outside became. The line manager became weary that people started to have opinions contradicting his own and could no longer be commanded and controlled so easily. Trust became an even rarer commodity as defined responsibilities weren't met, professional boundaries were violated and snippish comments about other people's actions proliferated.
I'm not going to exempt myself here, such a mindset is truly contagious and definitely not helpful.
Problem: As long as there are trust issues, doing work is irrelevant. When the trust can't be mended, it's better to end fast than drag on.
SummaryYes. I messed up. I took a too large portion. I will avoid to take such an "omni responsibility" in the future, simply because I won't have either the time or energy to fix all the fatal problems. The Scrum value of "Focus" can't be maintained when meddling in too many issues at the same time. The biggest problem was trust. It is the root cause of all other problems - and letting trust issues go unchecked is a surefire recipe for disaster.
Lessons for the future
- The team must be empowered to make decisions about their work autonomously. While input from the outside organization needs to be considered appropriately, the differing opinions from those not even doing the work should never paralyze the team.
- Forget working in an agile fashion without the necessary support infrastructure. If you can't get it quickly, you might as well scrap the entire project. When it takes four months to get a build environment, your team is toast. For me personally, I will put an exit clause in future agile contracts that I will quit when my teams don't have build infrastructure within a week.
- When one person thinks of a traditional project manager and another thinks of an agile Product Owner, conflict is pre-programmed. This conflict can't be solved by compromise. A clear role definition upfront goes a long way. As long as the client doesn't understand the difference, it doesn't make sense to start working. If the client is willing to learn, a solution can be found. Otherwise, continuous conflict is pre-programmed.
- "Culture eats strategy for breakfast". I know this, yet it's so easy to forget in the heat of the battle. Taking on too many roles simultaneously makes it too easy to forget leaning back and see how culture is preparing its next meal. A pure coach can observe and have the right conversations at the right time. A PO/PM caught in delivery mode goes blind. I did. Against better knowledge, so I can better understand those who have the same problem.
- You will only be as agile as your team, and "Continuous attention to technical excellence" is part of the agile principles for a reason. Working with developers who haven't kept up to date in years is another surefire way of producing an unsustainable product. In future PO roles, I will make sure there's a training budget and developers get proper training so that the best they can do is on top notch level.
- Two managers doesn't work for the same reason as we don't have two Product owners or two POTUS. One must give the direction. There can't be two winning strategies that aren't the same. Next time someone tries pushes me to share a single management/PO role with someone else, I will resign. Immediately.
- Trust is paramount. I thought trust would come over time as we would deliver. I was wrong. On so many levels. No Trust - no Done. In future endeavours, I will invest much further into trust building, and when I discover that's impossible, it's better to end fast than drag on.
"A bad system beats a good person every single time". I don't even claim to be a good person, but I do say that I learned a lot about spotting systems which are set up to fail.
And I hope this article is helpful for you, too.